God of egypt deutsch

god of egypt deutsch

Gods of Egypt ist ein Fantasyfilm des Regisseurs Alex Proyas aus dem Jahr mit Gerard Rolle, Darsteller/in, Deutsche Synchronstimme. Set, Gerard Butler. Egypt online schauen. Gods of Egypt online leihen und sofort anschauen bei maxdome, Deutschlands größter Online-Videothek. Deutsch,; Englisch. (). Gods of Egypt jetzt legal online anschauen. Der Film ist aktuell bei Amazon, Gods of Egypt HD Länge: Min. | Sprachen: Deutsch, Englisch (OV) UT.

The film portrays a mortal Egyptian hero who partners with the Egyptian god Horus to save the world from Set and rescue his love.

Filming took place in Australia under the American film production and distribution company Summit Entertainment.

When Lionsgate began promoting the film in November , it received backlash for its predominantly white cast playing Egyptian deities. In response, Lionsgate and director Proyas apologized for ethnically-inaccurate casting.

The film was poorly reviewed by critics, who criticized its choice of cast, script, acting and special effects; these reviews prompted an angry response from Proyas.

It received five nominations at the 37th Golden Raspberry Awards. Set in the mythology of ancient Egypt, the world is flat and the Egyptian gods live among humans, they differ from humans by their greater height, golden blood, and ability to transform into their divine forms.

A young thief named Bek and his love Zaya are attending the coronation of Horus. During the ceremony, Osiris is killed by his extremely jealous brother Set , who seizes the throne and declares a new regime where the dead will have to pay with riches to pass into the afterlife.

Horus is stripped of his eyes, the source of his power, and almost killed. His love, Hathor pleads with Set to spare him and he is instead exiled in exchange for Egypt's surrender.

A year later, Bek has been working as a slave building monuments while Zaya is now under the ownership of Set's chief architect Urshu.

Believing that Horus is the only one who can defeat Set, she gives Bek the floor plans to his treasure vault and also manages to get a glimpse of the plans for his pyramid.

Bek is able to steal back one of Horus' eyes from the treasure vault. However, Urshu finds out and kills Zaya as the couple flee.

Bek takes her body to the blind Horus and makes a bargain: Horus agrees to bring Zaya back from the dead for his eye and Bek's knowledge about Set's pyramid.

The two fly to the divine vessel of Horus' grandfather Ra. Horus is unable to convince Ra to regrant him his power so he can defeat Set himself, as Ra is both neutral about their conflict and daily at war with the enormous shadow beast Apophis that threatens to devour the world.

He does however allow Horus to obtain a vial of the divine waters that surround his vessel, which can extinguish the desert thirst and weaken Set gravely.

Ra tells Horus that his weakness is the result of him not fulfilling his destiny, which Horus believes means avenging his parents' deaths.

Set asks Hathor to take him to the underworld, but she refuses and escapes. After surviving an attack by Set's Egyptian Minotaurs led by Mnevis and an attack by some of Set's minions and their giant cobras, Hathor finds and saves Bek and Horus.

Horus at first doesn't trust her as she is a mistress of Set, while she tries to convince him that Set is her enemy as well. When they tell her of their plan regarding Set's pyramid, she warns them of a guardian sphinx who will kill anyone not wise enough to solve a riddle.

The group then heads to the library of Thoth , so they can recruit him to solve the riddle. Arriving at Set's pyramid, they overcome its traps including the sphinx, to reach the source of Set's power.

But before they can pour the divine water, Set traps them and reveals to Bek that Horus cannot bring Zaya back from the dead. Set destroys their flask and takes Thoth's brain.

Horus is able to save Hathor and Bek. Horus admits to caring more about his revenge than the mortals. Hathor sacrifices her own safety for Zaya's payment into the afterlife by giving Bek her bracelet and calls Anubis to take him to Zaya, letting herself be dragged to the underworld.

Having combined Thoth's brain, Osiris's heart, Horus's eye, and wings from Nephthys with himself, Set travels to Ra, questioning his favoritism for Osiris and denying him the throne and children.

Ra claims that all of Set's prior mistreatments were tests preparing Set for his true role: Set is dismayed and wants to destroy the afterlife so that he can be immortal.

Ra tries to fight Set by blasting him with his spear, though Set survives with his combined power. He stabs Ra, takes his spear, and casts him off the boat freeing Apophis to consume both the mortal and underworld realms.

Bek finds Zaya, who refuses Hathor's gift as she doesn't want an afterlife without Bek, but then Apophis attacks and the gate to the afterlife is closed.

Bek returns to the mortal world, where Horus is amazed that Bek still wants to help take down Set. Bek tells him it was Zaya who told him to, as she still has faith in Horus.

Horus climbs up the outer wall of an obelisk Set is standing on and attempts to battle him, but is heavily outmatched. Whilst Bek fights Urshu who is thrown off to his death, Bek ascends on the inside and joins the battle, removing Horus's stolen eye from Set's armor, being wounded in the process.

As Bek slides toward the edge of the obelisk, he throws the eye toward Horus, who must choose to catch it or save Bek instead.

Horus reaches for Bek and apologizes for all he has put him through. As they plummet toward the ground, Horus regains the power to transform and he catches Bek and flies him to safety.

Horus realizes that it wasn't the recovery of his eye nor revenge that was his destiny, it was the protection of his people for which he needed to fight.

Now, Horus has the strength for battling Set, and he out maneuvers and kills him. He then finds Ra wounded and floating in space, and returns his spear to him, allowing Ra to once again repel Apophis and for Anubis to reopen the gates.

As Horus returns to Bek, a child holds out his other eye, while people cheer him. Horus finds Bek dying from the wounds he sustained whilst fighting Set, carries him to Osiris's tomb and lays him beside Zaya.

Ra arrives and offers to bestow any power on him to repay Horus for his life and Egypt's survival. All Horus wants is bringing Bek and Zaya back to life.

The other gods, who had not passed into the afterlife, are also revived leaving Horus's parents who had already passed into the afterlife.

Horus is crowned king by Thoth and declares access to the afterlife will be paid with good deeds. Bek is made chief advisor , and he gives Horus back Hathor's bracelet letting him leave to rescue her from the underworld.

The film was produced under Summit Entertainment. Proyas was contracted by Summit in May , to write the screenplay with Sazama and Sharpless, and to direct the film.

The director cited the following films as influences on Gods of Egypt: Actor Nikolaj Coster-Waldau was cast in June The film was shot in Australia.

A crew of began pre-production in Sydney in New South Wales , and producers considered filming in Melbourne in Victoria , to take advantage of the state's tax incentive.

Docklands Studios Melbourne was too booked to accommodate Gods of Egypt , and producers were instead offered an airport facility for production.

In the film, the gods in humanoid form are 9 feet 2. Proyas used forced perspective and motion control photography to portray the difference in height between the actors portraying the gods and the humans.

Proyas called the logistical challenge a "reverse Hobbit", referring to The Lord of the Rings films, in which Hobbits are depicted as shorter than humans.

For the god Thoth, who can appear as many copies, actor Chadwick Boseman was filmed hundreds of times from different angles.

For a scene with many copies of Thoth, other actors took a day to film the scene, where Boseman filmed the scene for three days. White actors make up most of the principal cast of Gods of Egypt.

When Lionsgate began marketing the film, the Associated Press said the distributor received backlash for ethnically inaccurate casting.

Lionsgate and director Alex Proyas both issued apologies. The AP said, "While some praised the preemptive mea culpa The casting practice of white actors as Egyptian characters was first reported after filming started in March , when Daily Life ' s Ruby Hamad highlighted the practice as "Hollywood whitewashing".

Some suggested that the casting of black actor Chadwick Boseman , who plays the god Thoth , played into the Magical Negro stereotype.

The previous year, the biblical epic Exodus: Gods and Kings by director Ridley Scott received similar backlash for having a white cast.

She said with the release of Aziz Ansari 's TV series Master of None in the previous week, "Whitewashed casting and the offensiveness of brownface has pretty much dominated the pop culture conversation this week.

Promotion for the movie is beginning just as we're wrapping a banner year for discussions of diversity and gender pay equity in the film industry.

When Lionsgate followed its release of posters with a release of a theatrical trailer, Scott Mendelson at Forbes said, "The implication remains that white actors, even generic white actors with zero box office draw, are preferable in terms of domestic and overseas box office than culturally-specific minority actors who actually look like the people they are supposed to be playing.

Lincoln said of the released trailer, "Casting here stands out like a sore thumb leftover from s Hollywood.

I suspect this film generates a lot of conversation before it hits theaters February 26, In response to criticisms of its casting practice, director Alex Proyas and Lionsgate issued apologies in late November for not considering diversity; Lionsgate said it would strive to do better.

Mendelson of Forbes said the apologies were "a somewhat different response" than defenses made by Ridley Scott for Exodus and Joe Wright for Pan An unusual occurrence worth noting.

They want the cast that they selected and they don't want people to hold it against them that it's a white cast. Boseman, who plays the god Thoth, commenting on the whitewashing, said he expected the backlash to happen when he saw the script.

He said, "I'm thankful that it did, because actually, I agree with it. That's why I wanted to do it, so you would see someone of African descent playing Thoth, the father of mathematics, astronomy, the god of wisdom.

I'm not even playing an Egyptian; I'm an 8-foot-tall god who turns into a falcon. A part of me just wants to freak out, but then I think, 'There's nothing you can do about it.

In the month leading up to release, director Proyas said his film was fantasy and not intended to be history. He cited "creative license and artistic freedom of expression" to cast the actors he found to fit the roles.

He said "white-washing" was a justified concern but for his fantasy film, "To exclude any one race in service of a hypothetical theory of historical accuracy He argued that the lack of English-speaking Egyptian actors, production practicalities, the studio's requirement for box office draws, and Australia having guidelines limiting "imported" actors were all factors in casting for the film.

He concluded, "I attempted to show racial diversity, black, white, Asian, as far as I was allowed, as far as I could, given the limitations I was given.

It is obviously clear that for things to change, for casting in movies to become more diverse many forces must align. Not just the creative.

To those who are offended by the decisions which were made I have already apologised. I respect their opinion, but I hope the context of the decisions is a little clearer based on my statements here.

This time of course they have bigger axes to grind — they can rip into my movie while trying to make their mainly pale asses look so politically correct by screaming 'white-wash!!!

In the week before the film's release, Lions released the tie-in mobile game Gods of Egypt: The magazine said the film had "a strong ensemble cast" and that its director has "had a noteworthy following".

BoxOffice also said the premise could attract movie-goers who saw Clash of the Titans , Wrath of the Titans , and the Percy Jackson films.

Admissions to 3D screenings would help boost Gods of Egypt ' s gross. The magazine said factors negatively affecting the film's gross were a "lackluster reaction" to its marketing and the backlash to its predominantly white cast causing negative buzz.

It anticipated that the film's release would be front-loaded focused on profiting mainly from opening weekend due to the poor buzz, its categorization as a fantasy film, and with London Has Fallen opening the following weekend.

Kebechet Goddess of purification Also known as the wandering goddess, or the lost child Khepri God of scarab beetles , sun, rebirth, and creation Ra's aspect in the morning Khnum Ram-headed god, and god of the Nile River.

Ra's aspect in the evening Khonsu God of the moon Known in legend Nut gambles with him to add 5 days on to the end of the year to give birth to Horus, Osiris, Set, Nephthys, and Isis.

Also known as the demon days. Pakhet A goddess of motherhood and of war [5] Ptah God of creation Qebui God of the North wind [6] Qetesh Goddess of nature, beauty, sacred ecstasy , and sexual pleasure Adopted into ancient Egypt from Kadesh in what is now Syria.

Mortal enemy and brother to Osiris, Husband to Nephthys. He killed his brother Osiris because of jealousy. No one can really describe what he is.

He is a human hybrid, half human mixed with an unknown creature. Chelsea House, , p. Facts on File, , p. Routledge, , pp.

Retrieved December 18, Spooner January—December, , p. Retrieved from " https: Egyptian gods and goddesses Lists of gods and goddesses.

Pages with citations using unsupported parameters CS1 errors: Views Read Change Change source View history. In other projects Wikimedia Commons.

This page was last changed on 8 November , at See Terms of Use for details. Wife of Amun, one of the creation goddesses. An Egyptian sky god and God of war.

Goddess of the seventeenth Nome of Upper Egypt. Goddess of the river Nile. A live bull worshipped as a god at Memphis [4].

He lives in the Duat. Known to protect pregnant women and children. He is brother to Anubis and the son of Osiris and Isis.

Goddess of magic , marriage , healing , and protection. She is the wife and sister of Osiris and the mother and sister of Horus.

Festivals often involved a ceremonial procession in which a cult image was carried out of the temple in a barque -shaped shrine. In most monotheistic religions, God has no counterpart with which to relate sexually. Sobek was pictured as a crocodile-headed man. Views Read View source View history. Evans, Greg November 27, Jordan Hoffman of The Guardian said, "This is ridiculous. Daily Life of the Egyptian Gods. But many festivals and other traditions of modern Egyptians, both Christian and MuslimBeste Spielothek in Warzfelden finden the worship of their ancestors' gods. Thus, Muslims are not iconodulesare not expected to visualize God, and instead of having pictures of Allah in their mosqueshave religious scripts written on the wall. Called the Avenger, Horus was the son of Isis and Osiris. It is common among contemporary philosophers, and indeed it was not uncommon in earlier asien casino, to reject positions on the ground that they are meaningless. In the time after myth, most gods were said to be either in the sky or invisibly present within the world. Both authors claim however, that Beste Spielothek in Bruck finden is possible schwarz weiß casino reno answer these questions purely within the realm of science, and without invoking any divine beings. Der Diebstahl durch Bek gelingt, allerdings befindet sich in der fallenbewehrten Schatzkammer nur eines Beste Spielothek in Drögennottorf finden Augen. Die Besetzung ist ebenfalls top. Ich hatte mich definitiv darauf gefreut. Diese ermöglichen arsenal vs sunderland live stream bessere Dienstbarkeit unserer Website. Sie entwickeln den Plan, die Augen des Horus zu stehlen, um sie ihm zurückzugeben, www.flirty-chat.eu dieser seine göttlichen Kräfte zurückerhält. Die Seite muss neu geladen werden. Da er seinen Plan nicht alleine in die Tat boateng wert kann, tut Bek sich mit Horus zusammen, der sein Auge wieder bekommen möchte. In die deutschsprachigen Kinos kam der Film am Set, der inzwischen auch die Flügel seiner ehemaligen Frau Nephthys abgeschnitten hat, lässt sich diese Flügel, Thoths Gehirn, das Herz des Osiris und das zweite Auge des Horus einsetzen und wird somit, zusammen mit Ras Speer, zu einer Art Supergott, der alle Fähigkeiten der besiegten Götter besitzt. Basil IwanykAlex Proyas. Bitte logge Dich ein. Leider ist es letztendlich ein Kampf zwischen Set und Durch die Nutzung dieser Website erklären Sie sich mit den Nutzungsbedingungen und der Datenschutzrichtlinie einverstanden. Mithilfe des Wassers des Lebens wollen sie Sets Wüstenfeuer löschen, um diesen casino it plot schwächen. April 2 Std. Ihre abenteuerliche Reise führt sie bis ins Jenseits und hinauf in den Himmel, wo der Sterbliche und der Gott mehrere gefährliche Aufgaben meistern aachen casino dresscode.

Maxwells bemerkenswerten Kriegsepos Gettysburg, erzählt von der unerschütterlichen Fahnentreue und den erbitterten Auseinandersetzungen zu Beginn des Krieges.

Im Mittelpunkt stehen drei tapfere Männer und drei schicksalhafte Schlachten. Joshua Chamberlain, Jackson und Robert E.

Manassas, Fredericksburg und Chaneellorsville. Durch die Augen dieser Kämpfer, auf diesen Schlachtfeldern werden wir Zeuge, wie sich eine junge Nation heldenhaft und unerbittlich selbst bekriegt.

Die Familie Duncan könnte glücklicher nicht sein. Vater Paul bekommt eine besser bezahlte Lehrerstelle in der Vorstadt angeboten und seine Frau Jessie ist als Fotografin beruflich erfolgreich.

Doch dann soll das Schicksal hart zuschlagen: Adam kommt bei einem tragischen Unfall ums Leben, der kleine Junge wird von einem Auto überfahren.

Ohnmächtig vor Schmerz können die Duncans den Verlust kaum ertragen. Nach der Beerdigung taucht ein ehemaliger Universitäts-Professor von Jessie auf.

Richard Wells macht Paul und Jessie ein unmoralisches Angebot. Er ist ein führender Experte auf dem Gebiet der Klonforschung und bietet den beiden an, ihren Sohn Adam zu klonen.

Her goldfish dead, her lover exposed as a rat, Shawn Holloway leaves her bank post and goes to the roof intent on suicide. Before she can leap, she's taken hostage by Charlie Anders, a fleeing bank robber.

He and his partners have stolen a million in cash and plan to escape to Venezuela. Shawn agrees to cooperate if Charlie promises to kill her once he's in the clear.

Parts of the plan go awry, so Charlie has time to try to pierce her bleak manner and self pity, and she has time for reflection.

As night falls, their interlude ends: Charlie erlebt eine Vision, in der seine an Krebs gestorbene Mutter Katie zu ihm spricht und ihn auffordert, Herz und Kopf wieder freizubekommen.

Dafür macht Charlie sich auf den Weg nach Bukarest. Charlie soll persönlich dafür sorgen, dass Victors Tochter Gabi dessen Gepäck erhält.

Gabi ist jedoch mit dem psychotischen Drogenboss Nigel verheiratet, der seine Perle auf keinen Fall verlieren will.

Für Charlie ist klar: Er muss Gabi beschützen und ihr seine Liebe gestehen. Zusammen flüchten die beiden und werden schon bald von einer ganzen Brigade rumänischer Killer verfolgt.

Er soll die Nachkommen der terroristischen Organisation Hydra unter der Führung des deutschen Baron von Stucker und seiner Tochter Viper aufhalten, die einen tödlichen Virus freisetzen und die amerikanische Bevölkerung auslöschen wollen.

Doch das soll Nick Fury um jeden Preis verhindern. Brooklyn Rules Drama, Action, Thriller. Drei Freunde, die sich kennen, solange sie denken können, lassen sich in diesem Drama von Fragen um Liebe, Verlust und Treue umtreiben.

Michael ist ein charmanter Betrüger. Er schreibt sich an der Uni ein und gewinnt das Herz von Ellen, die faszinieren kann. Bobby ist bodenständiger, er plant eine gemeinsame Zukunft mit seiner Freundin.

Carmine sucht Wege in die Mafia und fühlt sich besonders von der Gestalt des Caesar angezogen. Der Freund auf Abwegen stellt Michael und Bobby vor die Frage, ob sie es riskieren sollen, sich gegen die Mafia zu stellen oder lieber die langjährige Freundschaft aufs Spiel setzen wollen.

Tekken - Die eiserne Faust Action, Animation. Die auf dieser Kassette enthaltene zweiteilige OVA mit ihrer in sich abgeschlossenen Story dürfte sogar eingefleischten Tekken-Verteranen noch das eine oder andere Geheimnis offenbaren!

Sniper 2 Action. Einige Jahre, nachdem man ihn wegen eines verlorenen Fingers aus dem Amt jagte, klopft der CIA wieder an die Pforten seines ehemaligen Lieblingskillers Beckett, um diesen zu überreden, einen auf dem Balkan agierenden Terrorgeneral zu liquidieren.

Vor Ort geht zunächst alles glatt, doch schon bald muss Beckett erkennen, dass seine Auftraggeber ein doppeltes Spiel treiben. Die Bewohner leiden unter den verheerenden Folgen eines jahrelang andauernden Atomkriegs.

Der Frieden ist alles andere als stabil und fünf unbekannte brutale Herrscher regieren den Planeten. Als der junge Maxim Kammerer das Weltall auf der Suche nach fremden Zivilisationen durchstreift, macht er eine Bruchlandung auf dem von Terror und Krieg zerstörten Saraksh Der Richter - Recht oder Ehre.

Der Richter - Recht oder Ehre Drama. Nicht nur räumlich hat er sich weiterbewegt, auch zu seiner Familie hat Hank den Kontakt längst abgebrochen.

Als er vom Tod seiner Mutter erfährt, kehrt er das erste Mal nach langer Zeit nach Hause zurück, wenn auch nur sehr widerwillig.

Sein Vater Joseph, der vor seinem Ruhestand als Richter des Städtchens fungierte, ist an Alzheimer erkrankt und wird des Mordes angeklagt.

Durch die Krankheit wird der Beweis der Unschuld jedoch erheblich erschwert und Hank findet in seinen persönlichen Ermittlungen mehr über die Familie heraus als ihm lieb ist Following the last wish of an old master, three monks head to Seoul to rest his remains in the Mushim Temple.

However, they discover that the heavily indebted host monk has abandoned the temple and its inhabitants. Gods were linked to specific regions of the universe.

In Egyptian tradition, the world includes the earth, the sky, and the Duat. Surrounding them is the dark formlessness that existed before creation.

Most events of mythology, set in a time before the gods' withdrawal from the human realm, take place in an earthly setting. The deities there sometimes interact with those in the sky.

The Duat, in contrast, is treated as a remote and inaccessible place, and the gods who dwell there have difficulties in communicating with those in the world of the living.

It too is inhabited by deities, some hostile and some beneficial to the other gods and their orderly world. In the time after myth, most gods were said to be either in the sky or invisibly present within the world.

Temples were their main means of contact with humanity. Each day, it was believed, the gods moved from the divine realm to their temples, their homes in the human world.

There they inhabited the cult images , the statues that depicted deities and allowed humans to interact with them in temple rituals.

This movement between realms was sometimes described as a journey between the sky and the earth. As temples were the focal points of Egyptian cities, the god in a city's main temple was the patron deity for the city and the surrounding region.

They could establish themselves in new cities, or their range of influence could contract. Therefore, a given deity's main cult center in historical times is not necessarily his or her place of origin.

When kings from Thebes took control of the country at start of the Middle Kingdom c. In Egyptian belief, names express the fundamental nature of the things to which they refer.

In keeping with this belief, the names of deities often relate to their roles or origins. The name of the predatory goddess Sekhmet means "powerful one", the name of the mysterious god Amun means "hidden one", and the name of Nekhbet , who was worshipped in the city of Nekheb , means "she of Nekheb".

Many other names have no certain meaning, even when the gods who bear them are closely tied to a single role. The names of the sky goddess Nut and the earth god Geb do not resemble the Egyptian terms for sky and earth.

The Egyptians also devised false etymologies giving more meanings to divine names. The gods were believed to have many names.

Among them were secret names that conveyed their true natures more profoundly than others. To know the true name of a deity was to have power over it.

The importance of names is demonstrated by a myth in which Isis poisons the superior god Ra and refuses to cure him unless he reveals his secret name to her.

Upon learning the name, she tells it to her son, Horus, and by learning it they gain greater knowledge and power. In addition to their names, gods were given epithets , like "possessor of splendor", "ruler of Abydos ", or "lord of the sky", that describe some aspect of their roles or their worship.

Because of the gods' multiple and overlapping roles, deities can have many epithets—with more important gods accumulating more titles—and the same epithet can apply to many deities.

The Egyptians regarded the division between male and female as fundamental to all beings, including deities. Some deities were androgynous, but usually in the context of creation myths, in which they represented the undifferentiated state that existed before the world was created.

Shu and his consort Tefnut. Sex and gender were closely tied to creation and thus rebirth. Female deities were often relegated to a supporting role, stimulating their male consorts' virility and nurturing their children, although goddesses were given a larger role in procreation late in Egyptian history.

Female deities also had a violent aspect that could be seen either positively, as with the goddesses Wadjet and Nekhbet who protected the king, or negatively.

Egyptian deities are connected in a complex and shifting array of relationships. A god's connections and interactions with other deities helped define its character.

Thus Isis, as the mother and protector of Horus, was a great healer as well as the patroness of kings. Such relationships were the base material from which myths were formed.

Family relationships are a common type of connection between gods. Deities often form male and female pairs. Families of three deities, with a father, mother, and child, represent the creation of new life and the succession of the father by the child, a pattern that connects divine families with royal succession.

The pattern they set grew more widespread over time, so that many deities in local cult centers, like Ptah, Sekhmet, and their child Nefertum at Memphis and Amun, Mut , and Khonsu at Thebes, were assembled into family triads.

Other divine groups were composed of deities with interrelated roles, or who together represented a region of the Egyptian mythological cosmos.

There were sets of gods for the hours of the day and night and for each nome province of Egypt. Some of these groups contain a specific, symbolically important number of deities.

Ra, who is dynamic and light-producing, and Osiris, who is static and shrouded in darkness, merge into a single god each night.

Amun, Ra, and Ptah. These deities stood for the plurality of all gods, as well as for their own cult centers the major cities of Thebes, Heliopolis , and Memphis and for many threefold sets of concepts in Egyptian religious thought.

Nine, the product of three and three, represents a multitude, so the Egyptians called several large groups "enneads", [Note 2] or sets of nine, even if they had more than nine members.

The most prominent ennead was the Ennead of Heliopolis , an extended family of deities descended from the creator god Atum, which incorporates many important gods.

This divine assemblage had a vague and changeable hierarchy. Gods with broad influence in the cosmos or who were mythologically older than others had higher positions in divine society.

At the apex of this society was the king of the gods , who was usually identified with the creator deity. Horus was the most important god in the Early Dynastic Period, Ra rose to preeminence in the Old Kingdom, Amun was supreme in the New, and in the Ptolemaic and Roman periods, Isis was the divine queen and creator goddess.

The gods were believed to manifest in many forms. The spirits of the gods were composed of many of these same elements. Any visible manifestation of a god's power could be called its ba ; thus, the sun was called the ba of Ra.

The cult images of gods that were the focus of temple rituals, as well as the sacred animals that represented certain deities, were believed to house divine ba s in this way.

Nationally important deities gave rise to local manifestations, which sometimes absorbed the characteristics of older regional gods. During the New Kingdom, one man was accused of stealing clothes by an oracle supposed to communicate messages from Amun of Pe-Khenty.

He consulted two other local oracles of Amun hoping for a different judgment. Horus could be a powerful sky god or vulnerable child, and these forms were sometimes counted as independent deities.

Gods were combined with each other as easily as they were divided. A god could be called the ba of another, or two or more deities could be joined into one god with a combined name and iconography.

Unlike other situations for which this term is used, the Egyptian practice was not meant to fuse competing belief systems, although foreign deities could be syncretized with native ones.

Syncretic combinations were not permanent; a god who was involved in one combination continued to appear separately and to form new combinations with other deities.

Horus absorbed several falcon gods from various regions, such as Khenti-irty and Khenti-kheti , who became little more than local manifestations of him; Hathor subsumed a similar cow goddess, Bat ; and an early funerary god, Khenti-Amentiu , was supplanted by Osiris and Anubis.

In the reign of Akhenaten c. Akhenaten ceased to fund the temples of other deities and erased gods' names and images on monuments, targeting Amun in particular.

This new religious system, sometimes called Atenism , differed dramatically from the polytheistic worship of many gods in all other periods. Whereas, in earlier times, newly important gods were integrated into existing religious beliefs, Atenism insisted on a single understanding of the divine that excluded the traditional multiplicity of perspectives.

There is evidence suggesting that the general populace was still allowed to worship other gods in private. The picture is further complicated by Atenism's apparent tolerance for some other deities, such as Maat, Shu, and Tefnut.

For these reasons, the Egyptologist Dominic Montserrat suggested that Akhenaten may have been monolatrous , worshipping a single deity while acknowledging the existence of others.

In any case, Atenism's aberrant theology did not take root among the Egyptian populace, and Akhenaten's successors returned to traditional beliefs.

Scholars have long debated whether traditional Egyptian religion ever asserted that the multiple gods were, on a deeper level, unified.

Reasons for this debate include the practice of syncretism, which might suggest that all the separate gods could ultimately merge into one, and the tendency of Egyptian texts to credit a particular god with power that surpasses all other deities.

Another point of contention is the appearance of the word "god" in wisdom literature , where the term does not refer to a specific deity or group of deities.

Wallis Budge believed that Egyptian commoners were polytheistic, but knowledge of the true monotheistic nature of the religion was reserved for the elite, who wrote the wisdom literature.

In , Erik Hornung published a study [Note 3] rebutting these views. He points out that in any given period many deities, even minor ones, were described as superior to all others.

He also argues that the unspecified "god" in the wisdom texts is a generic term for whichever deity the reader chooses to revere. Henotheism , Hornung says, describes Egyptian religion better than other labels.

An Egyptian could worship any deity at a particular time and credit it with supreme power in that moment, without denying the other gods or merging them all with the god that he or she focused on.

Hornung concludes that the gods were fully unified only in myth, at the time before creation, after which the multitude of gods emerged from a uniform nonexistence.

Hornung's arguments have greatly influenced other scholars of Egyptian religion, but some still believe that at times the gods were more unified than he allows.

It equated the single deity with the sun and dismissed all other gods. Then, in the backlash against Atenism, priestly theologians described the universal god in a different way, one that coexisted with traditional polytheism.

The one god was believed to transcend the world and all the other deities, while at the same time, the multiple gods were aspects of the one.

According to Assmann, this one god was especially equated with Amun, the dominant god in the late New Kingdom, whereas for the rest of Egyptian history the universal deity could be identified with many other gods.

Allen says that coexisting notions of one god and many gods would fit well with the "multiplicity of approaches" in Egyptian thought, as well as with the henotheistic practice of ordinary worshippers.

He says that the Egyptians may have recognized the unity of the divine by "identifying their uniform notion of 'god' with a particular god, depending on the particular situation.

Egyptian writings describe the gods' bodies in detail. They are made of precious materials; their flesh is gold, their bones are silver, and their hair is lapis lazuli.

They give off a scent that the Egyptians likened to the incense used in rituals. Some texts give precise descriptions of particular deities, including their height and eye color.

Yet these characteristics are not fixed; in myths, gods change their appearances to suit their own purposes. The Egyptians' visual representations of their gods are therefore not literal.

They symbolize specific aspects of each deity's character, functioning much like the ideograms in hieroglyphic writing. His black coloring alludes to the color of mummified flesh and to the fertile black soil that Egyptians saw as a symbol of resurrection.

Most deities were depicted in several ways. Hathor could be a cow, cobra, lioness, or a woman with bovine horns or ears. By depicting a given god in different ways, the Egyptians expressed different aspects of its essential nature.

These forms include men and women anthropomorphism , animals zoomorphism , and, more rarely, inanimate objects. Combinations of forms , such as deities with human bodies and animal heads, are common.

Certain features of divine images are more useful than others in determining a god's identity. The head of a given divine image is particularly significant.

In contrast, the objects held in gods' hands tend to be generic. The forms in which the gods are shown, although diverse, are limited in many ways.

Many creatures that are widespread in Egypt were never used in divine iconography. Others could represent many deities, often because these deities had major characteristics in common.

For instance, the horse, which was only introduced in the Second Intermediate Period c. Similarly, the clothes worn by anthropomorphic deities in most periods changed little from the styles used in the Old Kingdom: The basic anthropomorphic form varies.

Child gods are depicted nude, as are some adult gods when their procreative powers are emphasized. In official writings, pharaohs are said to be divine, and they are constantly depicted in the company of the deities of the pantheon.

Each pharaoh and his predecessors were considered the successors of the gods who had ruled Egypt in mythic prehistory. The few women who made themselves pharaohs, such as Hatshepsut , connected themselves with these same goddesses while adopting much of the masculine imagery of kingship.

For these reasons, scholars disagree about how genuinely most Egyptians believed the king to be a god. He may only have been considered divine when he was performing ceremonies.

However much it was believed, the king's divine status was the rationale for his role as Egypt's representative to the gods, as he formed a link between the divine and human realms.

These things were provided by the cults that the king oversaw, with their priests and laborers. Although the Egyptians believed their gods to be present in the world around them, contact between the human and divine realms was mostly limited to specific circumstances.

The ba of a god was said to periodically leave the divine realm to dwell in the images of that god.

In these states, it was believed, people could come close to the gods and sometimes receive messages from them. The Egyptians therefore believed that in death they would exist on the same level as the gods and fully understand their mysterious nature.

Temples, where the state rituals were carried out, were filled with images of the gods. The most important temple image was the cult statue in the inner sanctuary.

These statues were usually less than life-size, and made of the same precious materials that were said to form the gods' bodies.

Many temples had several sanctuaries, each with a cult statue representing one of the gods in a group such as a family triad.

The gods residing in the temples of Egypt collectively represented the entire pantheon. To insulate the sacred power in the sanctuary from the impurities of the outside world, the Egyptians enclosed temple sanctuaries and greatly restricted access to them.

People other than kings and high priests were thus denied contact with cult statues. The only exception was during festival processions, when the statue was carried out of the temple but still enclosed in a portable shrine.

The more public parts of temples often incorporated small places for prayer, from doorways to freestanding chapels near the back of the temple building.

Egyptian gods were involved in human lives as well as in the overarching order of nature. This divine influence applied mainly to Egypt, as foreign peoples were traditionally believed to be outside the divine order.

In the New Kingdom, when other nations were under Egyptian control, foreigners were said to be under the sun god's benign rule in the same way that Egyptians were.

Thoth, as the overseer of time, was said to allot fixed lifespans to both humans and gods. Several texts refer to gods influencing or inspiring human decisions, working through a person's "heart"—the seat of emotion and intellect in Egyptian belief.

Deities were also believed to give commands, instructing the king in the governance of his realm and regulating the management of their temples.

Egyptian texts rarely mention direct commands given to private persons, and these commands never evolved into a set of divinely enforced moral codes.

Because deities were the upholders of maat , morality was connected with them. For example, the gods judged humans' moral righteousness after death, and by the New Kingdom, a verdict of innocence in this judgment was believed to be necessary for admittance into the afterlife.

In general, however, morality was based on practical ways to uphold maat in daily life, rather than on strict rules that the gods laid out.

Humans had free will to ignore divine guidance and the behavior required by maat , but by doing so they could bring divine punishment upon themselves.

Natural disasters and human ailments were seen as the work of angry divine ba s. Shed , who emerged in the New Kingdom to represent divine rescue from harm, [] and Petbe , an apotropaic god from the late eras of Egyptian history who was believed to avenge wrongdoing.

Egyptian texts take different views on whether the gods are responsible when humans suffer unjustly. Misfortune was often seen as a product of isfet , the cosmic disorder that was the opposite of maat , and therefore the gods were not guilty of causing evil events.

Some deities who were closely connected with isfet , such as Set, could be blamed for disorder within the world without placing guilt on the other gods.

Some writings do accuse the deities of causing human misery, while others give theodicies in the gods' defense. Because of this human misbehavior, the creator is distant from his creation, allowing suffering to exist.

New Kingdom writings do not question the just nature of the gods as strongly as those of the Middle Kingdom.

They emphasize humans' direct, personal relationships with deities and the gods' power to intervene in human events.

People in this era put faith in specific gods who they hoped would help and protect them through their lives. As a result, upholding the ideals of maat grew less important than gaining the gods' favor as a way to guarantee a good life.

Official religious practices, which maintained maat for the benefit of all Egypt, were related to, but distinct from, the religious practices of ordinary people, [] who sought the gods' help for their personal problems.

Official religion involved a variety of rituals, based in temples. Some rites were performed every day, whereas others were festivals, taking place at longer intervals and often limited to a particular temple or deity.

Festivals often involved a ceremonial procession in which a cult image was carried out of the temple in a barque -shaped shrine.

These processions served various purposes. Such rituals were meant to be repetitions of the events of the mythic past, renewing the beneficial effects of the original events.

The returning greenery symbolized the renewal of the god's own life. Personal interaction with the gods took many forms.

People who wanted information or advice consulted oracles, run by temples, that were supposed to convey gods' answers to questions.

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